The quality of raw data is influenced by the scanning or camera device that is used. Identification and Verification Biometrics system can be classified into two main categories on the basis of application mode: It is considered as a fundamental shift in the way criminals are detected. These methods use physical characteristics for the identification or individualization of a criminal. A Linkage The extent of reported crime incidents is increasing perilously day by day. Therefore, finger-marks and biological traces are searched in priority on a crime scene.
The understanding of the value of fingerprints led to research in detection techniques and to operational and strategic uses for fingerprints. It is important for an examiner to note the ridge flow of a print for orientation purposes and the recognition of focal areas that will ultimately assist in the identification process. Deodorants and perfumes could lower the distinctiveness [ 13 ]. For example, In case of fingerprint recognition , an optical fingerprint sensor may be used to image the ridge pattern of the fingertip. Automated fingerprint identification technology While the recovery of identifiable postmortem impressions from human remains is an integral part of the forensic identification process, it is imperative that these impressions be compared with an antemortem standard in order to have any value in establishing or verifying human identity. If a dog tag or wallet can be obtained from decedents, the fingerprint record can be located by entering personal identifying information from these items into AFIS and printing off the antemortem record if it exists. Blind verification which is a rigorous type of pear review is being used by FBI, in which the evaluation decision made by the original finger analyst is not disclosed to the verifying examiner. A second principle is that an individual's fingerprints do not change with time. An important issue discovered in Thailand when using an automated fingerprint system for victim identification involved dimensional variations associated with recovered postmortem impressions. DNA biometrics Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , a chain of nucleotides contained in the nucleus of our cells, can be used as a biometric tool to classify and guide the identification of unknown individuals or biological samples left by them. A biometric system is a pattern recognition device that acquires physical or behavioral data from an individual, extracts a salient feature set from the data, compares this feature set against the features set stored in the database and provides the result of the comparison. Over five thousand people were killed when tsunami waves struck the coast of Thailand on December 26, Recent studies have reported that females have a significantly higher ridge density than males [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. Their resemblance allowed fingerprint pioneer to device systems of classification for fingerprint patterns; now they allow practical use to be made of large collections of prints that can be filed according to definite scheme [ 2 ]. UK-based company NEC IT Solutions, which also specializes in identification of terrorists and criminals, has created a system that analyzes the faces of potential customers as they enter shops. This is also referred as one to one comparison. The particular biometric trait needs to be unique, distinctive and robust to the forensic conditions. It is often used when voice is the only available trait for identification, e. Level 3 information is usually noted when assessing level 2 detail and, if visible, is compared as well. In addition to these biometric technologies, a number of other biometric modalities such as ear, dental, hand geometry and handwriting biometrics are also used by law enforcement agencies and government sectors to address various identity issues and criminal activities. Additionally, some ridges are as long as they are wide and are called dots [ 3 ]. The end result of these genetic and environmental variances during friction ridge formation is complete biological uniqueness, down to the structure of a single ridge. March 04, ; Accepted date: Ultimately, the evidence will be presented as proof that a crime was committed and will prove the identification of the criminal [ 1 ]. In this context, sex based differences in fingerprint patterns and the density of the finger ridges becomes relevant.
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