As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland , the city's fortifications had to be dismantled. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. Rur with Aachen French: By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Unter den Linden in Since , the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. After the royal palace was finished in , it gradually came into use. As a free city, Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right and obligation to maintain its own military force. Maternus, who was elected as bishop in , was the first known bishop of Cologne. In , the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I , King of Germany.
The reconstruction lasted until the s, when the Romanesque church of St. Let Thy Spirit descend! As a free city, Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right and obligation to maintain its own military force. Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland and the country's centre of political and economic life. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken. In under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. Three times between and the city was under siege, and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces. Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average. Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley , as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting, and gas infrastructure. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area. The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Cologne was home to the th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment. In architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble". Unter den Linden in Since , the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In the University of Cologne , closed by the French in , was reopened. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from and permanently from until But the Polish-Russian war of ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in Of Berlin's twelve boroughs , five bear a partly Slavic-derived name: In , Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II , King of Neustria , invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin.
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