S Bureau of the Census, a. The Marks paper reads like a legal brief: The conclusions in the APA report are unwarranted. It is now a given among researchers that entry into a family e. Community social capital refers to the linkages to the larger world that parents provide for their children such as being advocates for their children in school or other settings, plugging children in the kinds of social or work-related networks that benefit children, or teaching children how to negotiate the adult world Pleck,
Most of the studies I am aware of note one or more of these limitations in their data. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered families. For example, anti-gay sentiments, expressed or subtle, experienced by children of gay or lesbian parents from peers, teachers, or neighbors may be difficult for parents to shield from their children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. The lack of social connectedness may also retard the development of community social capital. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. In tandem with these behavioral changes has been a growing tolerance of less traditional lifestyles. If the past is any indication, the commitment of these resources is most likely to happen when 1 the questions that need to be addressed are of central concern to society and public policy; 2 there is general agreement that current science is inadequate; and 3 , that there is a lack of scientific consensus about the conclusions drawn from research. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Such ongoing nationally representative longitudinal datasets such as the National Longitudinal Surveys or the National Survey of Adolescent Health were not constructed to precisely identify childhood or adolescent experiences with gay or lesbian parents. Support networks may be easier for gay and lesbian parents to come by in urban areas or university dominated towns that tend to be tolerant of diverse families. Of course, this concern may certainly be allayed once the complete variable list is made public. The upshot is that whenever possible studies should include comparisons across multiple family structures. The Regnerus paper attempts to address some of the criticisms of this literature leveled by Marks. More studies that take into account these variable contexts are needed to gauge the impact they may have on gay and lesbian parents and their children as well as how parents cope with these issues. While Marks offers seven criticisms, in my view three seem especially relevant: Current Directions in Psychological Science. The analyses in the Regnerus paper are provocative but far from conclusive. This is not the case anymore. Given the costly and time-consuming nature of longitudinal data designs, addressing questions of social and behavior outcomes in young adulthood and beyond may rest for the foreseeable future on collecting retrospective data. Let me be clear, these papers do not prove anything. Let me begin with the paper by Loren Marks. Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school. In short, the current debates about same-sex marriage, embedded in the profound changes in the lives of children and the growing public tolerance of alternative families, together form the backdrop of growing scholarly interest in the well-being of children raised by gay or lesbian parents. These sub-groups are not only small, but, based on the demographic work of Gary Gates , widely dispersed across the United States, often living in markedly different contexts. Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions of adolescents with same-sex parents.
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