For a long time this definition was used with a derogatory intention. Many neorealist films, but not all, utilized non-professional actors. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his "Kinetograph" during this period. A "film-machine" who produced dozens of titles per year, his repertoire was frequently repeated. Spaghetti Western On the heels of the Peplum craze, a related genre, the Spaghetti Western arose and was popular both in Italy and elsewhere. Besides the many films starring a variety of muscle men as Hercules, heroes such as Samson and Italian fictional hero Maciste were common. Colin Blakely performed Peppone in one of his last film roles. Vittorio Gassman , Marcello Mastroianni , Ugo Tognazzi , Alberto Sordi , Claudia Cardinale , Monica Vitti and Nino Manfredi were among the stars of these movies, that described the years of the economical reprise and investigated Italian customs, a sort of self-ethnological research. This work is perhaps De Sica's masterpiece and one of the most important works in Italian cinema.
His films often with Peppino De Filippo and almost always with Mario Castellani expressed a sort of neorealistic satire, in the means of a guitto a "hammy" actor as well as with the art of the great dramatic actor he also was. To the Futurists, cinema was an ideal art form, being a fresh medium, and able to be manipulated by speed, special effects and editing. Mario Camerini began filming the film Don Camillo e i giovani d'oggi but had to stop filming due to Fernandel's falling ill, which resulted in his untimely death. Sometimes dismissed as low-quality escapist fare, the Peplums allowed newer directors such as Sergio Leone and Mario Bava a means of breaking into the film industry. Neorealist films typically dealt with the working class in contrast to the Telefoni Bianchi , and were shot on location. Monsignor , and Don Camillo in Moscow. Giuseppe De Santis , on other hand, used actors such as Silvana Mangano and Vittorio Gassman in his film, Bitter Rice , which is set in the Po Valley during rice-harvesting season. Besides the many films starring a variety of muscle men as Hercules, heroes such as Samson and Italian fictional hero Maciste were common. The Italian film industry struggled against rising foreign competition in the years following World War I. Upon viewing the film, Vittorio Mussolini is reported to have shouted, "This is not Italy! This effort was largely unsuccessful, however, due to a wide disconnect between production and exhibition some movies weren't released until several years after they were produced. Possibly because of this, neorealism effectively ended with that film; subsequent works turned toward lighter atmospheres, perhaps more coherent with the improving conditions of the country, and this genre has been called pink neorealism. As the genre matured, budgets sometimes increased, as evidenced in 's I sette gladiatori The Seven Gladiators in US release , a wide-screen epic with impressive sets and matte-painting work. Hollywood on the Tiber In the late s, Hollywood studios began to shift production abroad to Europe. Hollywood on the Tiber[ edit ] Main article: Poetry and cruelty of life were harmonically combined in the works that Vittorio De Sica wrote and directed together with screenwriter Cesare Zavattini: Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his "Kinetograph" during this period. Giovanni Pastrone's film Cabiria was an even larger production, requiring two years and a record budget to produce. During this period, Mussolini's son, Vittorio , created a national production company and organized the work of noted authors, directors and actors including even some political opponents , thereby creating an interesting communication network among them, which produced several noted friendships and stimulated cultural interaction. Most Peplum films were in color , whereas previous Italian efforts had often been black and white. The film Umberto D. Yet it is perhaps the most violent attack, in the apparent quietness of the action, against the rules of the new economy, the new mentality, the new values, and it embodies both a conservative and a progressive view. Soon pink neorealism, such as Pane, amore e gelosia , released in the US as Frisky with Vittorio DeSica and Gina Lollobrigida , was replaced by the Commedia all'italiana , a unique genre that, born on an ideally humouristic line, talked instead very seriously about important social themes. A series of black-and-white films based on Don Camillo character created by the Italian writer and journalist Giovannino Guareschi were made between and The advent of sound film led to stricter censorship from the Fascist government.
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