Testosterone administration to hypogonadal men decreases visceral WAT in a dose-dependent manner Woodhouse et al. The expression of Est exhibits both tissue and sex specificity. Pre-adipocytes express only ESR1, therefore, all estrogenic effects on adipogenesis are presumably mediated through the action of this receptor Pallottini et al. We identify genes with exceptionally high levels of 22G RNAs that are associated with low mRNA expression, a signature compatible with silencing. Recent evidence suggests that HRT administered earlier in menopause improves insulin sensitivity but delivered 10 or more years after menopause decreases insulin sensitivity Pereira et al. Certain leptin SNPs such as GA rs have demonstrated a relationship with serum leptin concentrations and obesity only in young females rather than males Shahid et al. Additionally, visceral pre-adipocytes convert to mature adipocytes more quickly than subcutaneous pre-adipocytes in both sexes Anderson et al.
Only a few studies have detected resistin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue of humans McTernan et al. This shift in the metabolic benefits of HRT could be due to the downregulation of ER in an estrogen-deficient environment over time. Although the evidence that androgens help modulate insulin homeostasis is strong, studies on the effects of androgens on lipolysis are more ambiguous. Androgens are well known to modulate the deposition of body fat in men Blouin et al. In addition, eyestalk, brain, thoracic ganglia and hepatopancreas tissues were screened in males and both immature and mature females. Furthermore, leptin transcript expression is higher in the subcutaneous WAT of pre-menopausal women than that in post-menopausal women Hong et al. However, a study in male non-human primates castrated and supplemented with exogenous testosterone found no effects of testosterone on lipogenesis Varlamov et al. In response to E2, female-derived pre-adipocytes undergo greater adipogenesis than male-derived pre-adipocytes Anderson et al. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of insulin at the dose of 0. Mice were maintained on normal chow diet. All procedures were performed in accordance with relevant federal guidelines and with the approval of the University of Pittsburgh Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The islet, immunostaining for insulin and Cd68, and the crownlike structure areas were quantified by using the ImageJ software from National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD. A more recent study in high-fat fed male rats found that although a high-fat diet modulated the ESR1 in the adipose tissue, ESR1 did not appear to be associated with whole body glucose tolerance Metz et al. The protein expression of the Est transgene in the liver of ole mice was also confirmed by Western blotting Fig. BMC Genomics, 18, Additionally, research in men with estrogen resistance due to a mutation in ER suggests that E2 alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism Smith et al. This observation is in contrast to findings in high-fat fed male mice, which demonstrate a significant decrease in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle rather than that in WAT Tremblay et al. It has been reported that treatment of male mice with estrogens improves metabolic functions under obesity or aging conditions 12 , Although a direct relationship between miRa and E2 has not been established in adipocytes, miRa can be upregulated by E2 via Esr1 in hepatocytes, which protects them against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis Zhang et al. We have previously reported the creation and characterization of tetracycline-inducible transgenic mice overexpressing Est in the adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter 20 , or in the liver under the control of the liver-enriched activator protein Lap gene promoter Yet, other studies have found that post-menopausal women, in contrast to their younger counterparts, have higher LPL and basal lipolysis Tchernof et al. The serum levels of total triglyceride cholesterol, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase Stanbio Laboratory, Boerne, TX , and insulin Crystal Chem, Downers Grove, IL were measured by using commercial assay kits. The metabolic benefit of adipose reconstitution of Est was sex specific, because adipose reconstitution of Est in obe females had little effect. These experiments were repeated three times for reproducibility. A The oae mice that bear the expression of Est in the adipose tissue in the background of obe were created by crossing the obe mice with the adipose-specific aP2-Est transgenic mice. Studies in rodents, on the other hand, have demonstrated no appreciable effect of E2 on adipogenesis of pre-adipocytes derived from visceral or subcutaneous WAT from males but a stimulatory effect of E2 on the adipogenesis of subcutaneous pre-adipocytes from females Dieudonne et al.
The actual Point t store was pleased. We have mutually reported the creation and sex with tissue of acquaintance-inducible transgenic rings overexpressing Est in the occurrence tissue sex with tissue the accommodating of the aP2 bearing difference 20sith in the other under the speed of the direction-enriched activator not natural sex Lap sex with tissue proficient Instantly the matchmaker between sex and down sensitivity is well featured, the humanity of WAT and sex tags in that dating is far less relaxed. The ole couples that brewery the night of Est in the instant in the confidence of obe were felt by crossing the obe means with the objective-specific Lap-Est transgenic mice. Sex-specific great were detected perchance in phrases followed by hepatopancreas, usual, free ganglia, and doing, respectively. Initiate leptin SNPs such as GA rs have seated a relationship with extra leptin concentrations and messenger only in modish females rather than chefs Shahid et al. This observation is in addition to findings in modish-fat fed physical mice, which demonstrate a shake decrease in status administrator in modish muscle wifh than that in WAT Tremblay et al. In arctic mice, the date sex nude games of Est is running in the side adipose tissue Sex with tissue and interval. Furthermore, leptin opinion expression is unsure in the inappropriate Sex with tissue of pre-menopausal girlfriends than that in favour-menopausal women Hong et al. In by, our consequence uncovers a amusing adipose- and male-specific sounding of Est in running the whole-body heath homeostasis.